Short History of Coffee Plantation in Indonesia

Coffee plants is not native to Indonesia, but the types of plants derived from the African continent. In advance has been stated that the coffee plant was brought to the island of Java in 1696, but at that time still in experimental stage.
In Java, this coffee plant gets full attention, in 1699, because these plants can grow and produce well. Indonesia imported coffee seeds from Yemen. At that time, the type that is imported Arabica coffee.
The experiment was originally located in the vicinity of Jakarta. After a trial planting in that area it worked well, then the seeds were distributed to the Regents in West Java to be planted in their respective areas; turn out also well.
These results must be submitted to a VOC with a very low price, with the submission by force. Then the plant which was originally only as experimental plant, eventually becoming a forced crop to farmers.

Having known that the coffee plant was the result continues to increase, then the expansion of the plant continue to be improved, especially in Java. Furthermore, the plant was further enforced with the existence of "Culturstelsel".
Since then, many entrepreneurs that expanding their operations in the field of plantation, especially in Central Java and East Java in the lands of private enterprise. Further crops were greater after the Agrarian Law issued in 1870 the plantation company could expand its business in the State-owned land with a very long term.
At first the coffee-growing plantations is widely available in central Java, the Semarang area, Sala; Kedu and in East Java, especially in the area Besuki and Malang.
Being located in Lampung in Sumatra, Palembang, Sumatra, West and East Sumatra. So until today many State-owned plantation companies derived from foreign companies.
Because of the widespread plantations of coffee, then the result can be abundant, but production has not reached its peak, the attacks arise suddenly leaves a highly malignant disease, causing huge losses.

Leaf disease known as "Hemileia vastatrix". In a short time, this leaves the disease can spread to everywhere. Every effort is made but was unsuccessful.
A very severe attack occurred on the plantations in the lowlands.
It can be concluded that this type of Arabica is not suitable when planted in the lowlands.

To solve the damage against the disease "Hemileia vastatrix". In 1875 it imported types Liberika originating from West Africa. This species was thought to be more resistant to "Hemileia vastatrix", but reality is not.

Coffea Liberika grown as embroidery, for Arabica coffee that dead. Since the occurrence of a mixture of both types of plants that there will be a new offspring, which raised the new hybrids. It turned out that hybrids are more resistant to "Hemileia vastatrix". Because the types are very sensitive to the disease "Hemileia vastatrix", then in 1900, Linden sent to Java coffee canephora in world trade that known as Robusta coffee from Brussels. Apparently this robusta coffee growing well, and more resistant to "Hemileia vastatrix", although not 100%.

Indeed sometimes Robusta coffee also got a severe attack, but can be recovered and the results are better than Liberika. Finally, many employers replace Liberika and Arabica coffee to Robusta coffee, that was not only highly resistant to "Hemileia vastatrix," but also relatively more easily grown and have higher productivity than the Arabica coffee.

Robusta coffee has no smell like the aroma of coffee Arabica coffee, therefore it is good quality and the price is assessed lower. However, the commercial can be accounted for, because its production is quite high, in addition to planting a smaller risk.

Since the twentieth century, Indonesia, which produces that Arabica coffee in the world market with the title Java Coffea, eventually switching to robusta coffee anyway. Since then, when people talk about Indonesian coffee, then the question in general is Robusta coffee.